How does all of this work?
Donna Scarborough: We use 3D technology to provide a view of the stresses
placed on the body which we cannot see with our eyes. It gives us an ability to
look at forces, torques, and positions of the body during an athletic
activity, such as pitching. This information complements information from the
physical exam which we perform on all our athletes. The first step is to put
reflective markers on the athlete and create a 3-D model based on body segments
that those markers are representing.
How do the markers work?
Donna Scarborough: The markers are actually small spheres covered with
reflective tape. The twenty cameras in this room have LED's encircling the
camera lenses which project light towards the athlete. This directional light
enhances the reflection of the markers.
How do the markers work in conjunction with the twenty cameras that are here?
Donna Scarborough: The cameras are tracking the position of each marker in 3D
space. They're passive meaning, the markers do not self generate a signal, they
use the reflection from the lights emitted in the room to be seen, tracked
and individually identified.
So, it captures the light and then what happens?
Donna Scarborough: The cameras know where each marker is in space and how it
should be placed on the body, with that information the athlete's
individualized animated model is created in real time. This 'avatar', so to
speak, is generated from a pre established model template. So, the computer
knows that each marker has its own purpose on the body and can create the
Do you strategically place the markers on the athlete's body?
Donna Scarborough: Correct, a group of markers are placed on specific boney
landmarks to define the body part and others are used only to track movement of
the body segment.
So, it is through the capturing of the light that the camera is actually
creates the model for the 3-D imaging?
Donna Scarborough: Correct. They track each one of the 62 markers in
3-Dimensional space at 360Hz and create that model for us in real time, which
is quite impressive.
What's the model do that's different from traditional?
Donna Scarborough: The 3-D model is different than a 2-Dimensional video
because it allows us to spin the person in space, 360°, and look at each body
part in 3-Dimensions as opposed to traditional 2D video where you can only see
the athlete's motion in the set view collected at the time of video capture. In
3D, we can view the same pitch delivery from all possible angles, including
looking down at the athlete as if an aerial view. If there is a pitching fault
identified from one view, the 3D analysis allows us to also see the
repercussions of that fault in all other areas of the body. While the 360° view
in itself is valuable, the real value is obtaining things that the eye cannot
see, including velocity, torque and forces of not just the throwing arm but of
the whole body. This technology is helping researchers, clinicians and coaches
get closer to understanding biomechanics of pitching, such as the role that the
lower body and trunk has in providing the power for the arm.
How does that help?
Donna Scarborough: So, that helps us understand what's going on in all planes
of movement during each of the key events in the pitch delivery. It is much
more valuable to understand the full mechanics of a person's body as opposed to
just visualize motion in one or two planes. In particular, if an athlete is
recovering from an injury. We want to determine how to improve efficient use of
an athlete's whole body to help protect vulnerable areas, in particular for
the pitcher his shoulder and elbow.
From the clinical aspect with Jake what were you able to do?
Donna Scarborough: Clinically we noticed that he had some limitations in
muscle length and strength imbalances, which is not that uncommon in pitchers.
We were able to correlate these findings to certain faults in the pitch using
the 3-Dimensional analysis. Getting the initial baseline 3D evaluation and
performing the repeat evaluation today, allowed Jake and our team to see the
effect of the training and instruction program and how the changes are
reflected in his pitch delivery.
This information is intended for additional research purposes only. It is not
to be used as a prescription or advice from Ivanhoe Broadcast News, Inc. or any
medical professional interviewed. Ivanhoe Broadcast News, Inc. assumes no
responsibility for the depth or accuracy of physician statements. Procedures or
medicines apply to different people and medical factors; always consult your
physician on medical matters
If you would like more information, please contact:
Donna Moxley Scarborough, MS, PT
Clinical & Research Director
Mass General Orthopaedics Sports Performance Center
Brigham and Women's/Mass General Health Care Center